In a _ forgetting task, the pigeon is shown a cue during the _ period, which signals whether the sample stimulus needs to be remembered or can be forgotten. Clarify what positive and negative mean. Chances are that this persistence results because their behavior of selling merchandise is on a(n) _ schedule of reinforcement. If a father punishes his son for being aggressive with his playmates, the son may learn not to be aggressive only when the father is _. Otto woke up one night to find an intruder standing over him in his bedroom. Create. For children who are old enough to understand language, punishment. STUDY. (A) fixed interval, (B) variable time, (C) fixed time, (D) variable interval, (E) none of the preceding. Pietro is having great difficulty sleeping, is easily startled, and has developed various phobias. Learn. Save. Reinforcement increases the strength of a behavior, or its likelihood of being repeated, and punishment decreases it. -Learn consequence > Learn to avoid or acquire, -About same time as Pavlov's work, predated Watson, -Try different behaviours > Discover which actions produce rewards or punishments, If consequence is pleasurable - connections strengthened, Effect of reward bigger than effect of punishment, Learning only possible when organism is prepared to learn, Connection easier when the two things 'belong together' (e.g., fruits, sports - share aspects or rules), Learned response easiest to perform in direction learned (e.g., alphabet song). One problem with spanking a child for being noisy while playing is that he might not only stop being noisy but also stop _. immediately; consistent; positively reinforce. A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if follow…. If Jason is extremely persistent in asking Neem out for a date, she will occasionally accept his invitation. In addition to being used to train people and animals to engage in new behaviours, operant conditioning can also be used to help people eliminate unwanted ones. Pietro's symptoms are similar to those shown by Masserman's cats that were exposed to _ aversive stimulation. Behaviors that are performed for their own sake are said to be _ motivated; behaviors that are performed to achieve some additional incentive are said to be _ motivated. Gravity. A discriminative stimulus is a stimulus that signals that a _ is available. Operant conditioning (or instrumental conditioning) focuses on using either reinforcement or punishment to increase or decrease a behavior. When Trish's friend Laura spread some nasty rumors about her, Trish stopped talking to her. Good for first training a behaviour (e.g., CRF, FR2, FR4...small # of required responses), Strength of association is weaker the higher the ratio requirement. Search. -A rat was rewarded with a food pellet for pressing a lever. (A) primary, (B) secondary, (C) intrinsic, (D) extrinsic, (E) both (B) and (C). C) observational learning. It can also involve negative reinforcement, such as rewarding a dog for walking close to its owner by relaxing the unpleasant tension on the leash. Laura tried hard to get Trish to talk to her. D) operant conditioning. This produces a _ pattern of responding. is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Exposed to social contexts where criminal/deviant acts > Acceptable, desirable, rewarded, What rewards/lifestyles associated with types of work, Shaping is (A) the reinforcement of a new operant behavior, (B) the gradual reinforcement of a new operant behavior, (C) the reinforcement of successive approximations to a new operant behavior, (D) the creation of new operant behavior through successive approximations to reinforcement, (E) none of the preceding. _ _. He might also learn that an effective means of controlling others is through the use of_. The child may also become _ as a result of the spanking, which might later be directed to his little brother or sister. She also finds that when the flag is not being held up, the children are now relatively (quiet /noisy) _, insofar as the behavior of running around is now under _. contrast; reinforcement; opposite; response. It was rewarded after pressing the lever 4, 12, 9, and 7 times. Ahmed found school only slightly interesting. According to the _, walking through the woods could be used as a _ for yardwork. chuah_yi_ning. Log in Sign up. Operant conditioning holds that human learning is more complex than the model developed by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) and involves human intelligence and will operating (thus its name) on its environment rather than being a slave to stimuli. _, Classically conditioned behaviors are said to be _ by stimuli; operant behaviors are. The terms reinforcer or punisher refer to the specific _ that follows a behavior, whereas the terms reinforcement or punishment refer to the _ or_ whereby the probability of a behavior is altered by its consequences. B.F. SKINNER'S EXPERIMENT 13. To train this chain of behaviors, one should start with _. Neem accepts Jason's invitation for a date only when he has just been paid his monthly salary. Major advantages of using the sound of a click for shaping are that the click can be delivered _ and the animal is unlikely to _ upon it. (A) during, (B) before, (C) after, (D) none of the preceding. As a result, the rat is more likely not to press the lever. He sees a new update after 2 minutes, then 6, then 4, then 8. Beth quickly pulled her hand back. Operant Conditioning: Definition. Operant Conditioning. If it only sometimes receives a treat when it begs for one, its begging is being maintained on a(n) _ schedule of reinforcement. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. classical; fear; operant; negatively; fear. (A) VI 20-sec, (B) VT 20-sec, (C) FT 20-sec, (D) FI 20-sec, (E) none of the preceding. Through this process, an association is formed between the behavior and the consequences of that behavior. In his experiments, Pavlov … Right after Gina was stung by a hornet, she was as likely to run away from houseflies as from hornets, which is an example of stimulus _. A dog whose begging for food has been reinforced 200 times is likely to show greater _ to extinction than a dog whose begging has been reinforced only 10 times. AP Psychology: Learning - Operant Conditioning - Quizlet. 71% average accuracy. Jimmy is doing math homework with his mother supervising. An event is a reinforcer if it _ a behavior and the future probability of that behavior _. Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence (Skinner, 1938). 0. This quiz was derived from material in: Psychology-Hockenbury & … 6.2. The teachers ignored her pleas for help, as did her other classmates. Operant conditioning is an elaboration of classical conditioning. Start studying Operant Conditioning. Operant conditioning is a type of associative learning which focuses on consequences that follow a response or behavior that we make (anything we do, say, or think/feel) and whether it makes a behavior more or less likely to occur. Copy and Edit. Write. haley_mccormick14. B) behaviorism. One reply to this criticism is that although the animals may become significantly less _ of the CS, they do not in fact become completely _. Operant Conditioning Reading Quiz 1. A parent who wishes to punish her little girl for playing too roughly with the cat would do well to impose the punishing consequence _ after the occurrence of the unwanted behavior and, at least initially, on a(n) (consistent /unpredictable) _ basis. Operant conditioning can also be used to decrease a behavior via the removal of a desirable outcome or the application of a negative outcome. As well, the rat's avoidance behavior is likely to be (more/less) _ consistent than the bee phobic's avoidance behavior. OPERANT CONDITION BY B,F, SKINNER • An American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher • Born: 20 March 1904 Died: 18 August 1990 • Known for: Operant conditioning, Operant conditioning chamber, Radical behaviorism 12. Flashcards . This may be occurring in this case because the entry of a babysitter into the house is, for Lucie, a _ stimulus indicating that a treat will soon become available. Sometimes, operant conditioning involves punishment. The abbreviation DRL refers to _ reinforcement of _ rate behavior. Unfortunately, due to other commitments, she actually spends 45 minutes exercising, followed by a 15-minute sauna, and a half hour drinking coffee and reading the paper. The dog's behavior of baring his teeth and growling served to (positively/negatively) _ (punish/reinforce) _ Beth's behavior of trying to pull his tail. When Erin was babysitting Lucie, it took hours before Lucie would stop pestering her for a treat. Money and praise are common examples of _ reinforcers. The dog growled even more threateningly the next time Beth reached for his tail, and she again pulled her hand away. 5 years ago. According to the _ approach, Anna's ideal schedule provides the _ amount of overall reinforcement that can be obtained from those activities. When Deanna screams continuously, her mother occasionally pays attention to her. Upgrade to remove ads. The gradual development of new operant behavior through reinforcement of _ to that behavior is called _. Operant responses are sometimes simply called _. She may also become clinically _. Gambling is often maintained by a _ schedule of reinforcement. schedule of reinforcement (reinforcement schedule). When the commander yells "Charge!" Section Learning Objectives . Is it play or aggression? A cat could escape from the box by a simple response such as pulling a cord or pushing a pole, but when first constrained, the cats took a long time to get out. Operant conditioning occurs when an association is made between a particular behavior and a consequence for that behavior. C) observational learning. This is an example of (A) negative reinforcement, (B) negative punishment, (C) positive reinforcement, (D) positive punishment. B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called: A) shaping. Operant conditioning, also called instrumental conditioning, is a method for modifying behavior (an operant) which utilizes contingencies between a discriminative stimulus, an operant response, and a reinforcer to change the probability of a response occurring again in that situation. Besides that it goes without mentioning that both Pavlov´s and Skinner´s theory differ in terms of their terminology. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Flashcards . Then, periodically throughout the day, she holds up the flag for a few minutes and lets the children run around like crazy. The three-term contingency can be thought of as an ABC sequence in which A stands for _, B stands for _, and C stands for _. successive (or gradual) approximations; shaping. A multiple schedule consists of two or more independent schedules presented (simultaneously/sequentially) _, each resulting in a _ and each having a distinctive _. Mowrer's two-process theory seems highly applicable to obsessive-compulsive disorder in that the occurrence of an obsessive thought is associated with a(n) _ anxiety, while performance of a compulsive behavior is associated with a(n) _ in anxiety. K - University grade . When the intruder saw that Otto was awake, he stabbed him and fled. According to learned helplessness research, Clint is (more/less) _ likely to become depressed following a bitter divorce if his own parents divorced when he was a child and he later recovered from the experience. -Knowledge certain period of time must pass. Pleasing adults? When Trish's friend Laura spread some nasty rumors about her, Trish stopped talking to her. Only $2.99/month. Lucie is ecstatic when Tamsen is her babysitter, and completely indifferent when Natasha is her babysitter. A type of learning we learn to associate two stimuli and antic…. Browse. Reinforcers and punishers are defined entirely by their _ on behavior. -A rat rewarded with a food pellet after pressing a lever. Drinking a soda to quench your thirst is an example of _ reduction; drinking a soda because you love its tangy sweetness is an example of _ motivation. _, removed (or substracted); presented (or added). With Super, get unlimited access to this resource and over 100,000 other Super resources. Boyd was walking through a strange part of town one night when he too was stabbed. Achieving a record number of strikeouts in a game would be a(n) (natural/contrived) _ reinforcer for pitching well; receiving a bonus for throwing that many strikeouts would be a(n) _ reinforcer. The behavior of these troops is obviously under strong _ control. Of the four basic intermittent schedules, Jason's behavior of asking Neem for a date is best described as being on a _ schedule of reinforcement. Dagoni works for longer and longer periods of time and takes fewer and fewer breaks as his project nears completion. Match. 1  Imagine that a … Operant conditioning utilizes reinforcement and punishment to create associations between behaviors and the consequences for those behaviors. The food pellets were delivered for the first response after 14, 5, 9, and 20 seconds. Learning associations between one's own personal actions and resulting events is most relevant to the process of: A) classical conditioning. Each time a student studies at home, she is praised by her parents. Create. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. E) cognition. A person who checks her apartment door dozens of times each night to make sure that it is locked probably experiences a(n) _ in anxiety when she thinks about whether the door is locked and a(n) _ in anxiety when she checks it. mpeitz. A _ is the response requirement that must be met to obtain reinforcement. On a _ schedule, reinforcement is contingent upon the first response during a varying period of time. On a _ schedule, a response must not occur until 20 seconds have elapsed since the last reinforcer. According to Mineka, there are limitations in the extent to which experimental demonstrations of avoidance are analogous to human phobias. Interestingly, she subsequently became (more/less) _ interested in other activities, including her job. Toy designed to be struck? Obert's tendency to pretend that he was ill was strengthened through the process of _. Least a certain number of responses notion of operant conditioning has been a fairly theory. Sometimes simply called _ and is now functioning as what type of method is the... Hypothesis, however, she will occasionally accept his invitation have elapsed since the last reinforcer for... Which he takes a break this set of symptoms in experimental animals known... 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