Some of the wording differs from the strict Catholic version (see the bracketed portions of the text below), and the work is far too grandiose for performance as part of a church service. Its three sections state beliefs about God (Credo in unum Deum sections 1,2), Jesus Christ (Et in unum Dominum, sections 3-6), and other aspects of Christianity (Et in Spiritum Sanctum sections 7-9). The performing parts were copied out in secret by members of the Bach family only, so that neither the Thomas School nor City officials would be aware of Bach's intentions. An extremely important reason that Bach is so good is his intense study of music itself. The magnificence of this work is signalled at the very outset with the mighty adagio five-part setting of the words Kyrie eleison succeeded by a fugal section of architectural grandeur and complexity. It is a superlative example of Bach's concern with symmetry: Crucifixus is the central pivot and the centre of the trinity of movements concerning Christ's incarnation, crucifixion and resurrection. So a plot was hatched, in the form of a dedicatory performance of the Kyrie-Gloria Mass to be given at Dresden. Its three sections state beliefs about God (Credo in unum Deum sections 1,2), Jesus Christ (Et in unum Dominum, sections 3-6), and other aspects of Christianity (Et in Spiritum Sanctum sections 7-9). Stauffer examines the B-Minor Mass in greater detail than ever before, demonstrating for the first time Bach's reliance on contemporary models from the Dresden Mass repertory and his brilliantly innovative methods of unifying his immense composition. The increasing importance of trumpets, the regal instruments, toward the end of the movement symbolizes that Christ has joined God the King. He also took up directorship of the Leipzig Collegium Musicum, which gave concert-style performances of instrumental and orchestral music in the music room of Zimmermann's Leipzig Coffee House. The second part of the Clavierübung, containing the Concerto in the Italian Style and the French Overture (Partita) in B Minor, appeared in 1735. Bach's magnificent Sanctus, with its exultant fugue, was written originally for Christmas Day, 1724. The Dona nobis pacem reprises the Gratias, bringing the Mass in B Minor to a triumphant close and linking majestically the concepts of peace, praise, and gratitude to God. And then I’ll recant my first statement. The second Kyrie, for four-part choir, has an intense, chromatic fugal subject. The chorus Et incarnatus est depicts an intense awe, an emotion that is deepened into despair in the Crucifixus, reworked from a chorus in a youthful Weimar Cantata, No. More detail on the Royal visit, and illustrations. The Nicene Creed, originally written in Greek and one of the fundamental creeds of Christianity, was drawn up by the Council of Nicaea, a meeting of bishops in AD 325, the first ecumenical (=worldwide) council consisting of church leaders who met to discuss teachings about Jesus. It is a superlative example of Bach's concern with symmetry: Crucifixus is the central pivot and the centre of the trinity of movements concerning Christ's incarnation, crucifixion and resurrection. Actually, the B Minor Mass is not usable in the Catholic liturgy. The joy of resurrection is emphasized by the contrast between the ending of the Crucifixus—low, slow, soft—and the opening of the Et resurrexit—high, soft, loud. Following a short period at Mühlhausen, he moved to the princely Court at Weimar in 1708. The romantic age’s concern with its roots led Germans to rediscover the music of Bach; simultaneously, a new appreciation of history in England led to a Bach revival there as well. On April 20, 1733, the Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland made his entry into Leipzig. Bach's Kyrie and Gloria were, diplomatically, acceptable equally to both faiths. Thus he derived the bass scales in the Patrem from those in the Credo. The Credo bursts forth with two vibrant fugal choruses. The Laudamus te, with its beautiful soprano solo balanced by an equally beautiful violin obbligato, has all the hallmarks of having originally been a violin duet. The Christe eleison is a gentle duet for sopranos with a charming ritornello for strings. Thus during the latter years of his life Bach gradually withdrew inwards, producing some of the most profound statements of baroque musical form. In place of the Kyrie’s fugues, the baroque concerto form is invoked, although there eventually is a fugue in this movement. Though Saxony was fervently Lutheran Protestant, August I had converted to Catholicism in order to accept the Polish Crown, and his successor August II followed suit. The second Kyrie, for four-part choir, has an intense, chromatic fugal subject. The first part of the Gloria, a joyous outpouring, was probably reworked from a now lost instrumental movement. The Clavierübung was Bach's most monumental undertaking in keyboard music. In order to represent the intimate relationship between the Father and the Son, Bach sets the first two parts of the text simultaneously as a duet for soprano and tenor. The middle section, which states Christian belief about Jesus, is the longest. PART ONE: Missa, consisting of Kyrie and Gloria. 3. The Benedictus, apparently the vestige of a lost tenor aria, with its slow, long, graceful vocal and instrumental lines is an evocation of serene love and longing. Postscript Completed in 1748, with individual parts composed and performed earlier. Its three sections state beliefs about God (Credo in unum Deum sections 1,2), Jesus Christ (Et in unum Dominum, sections 3-6), and other aspects of Christianity (Et in Spiritum Sanctum sections 7-9). The first complete performance took place in Leipzig in 1859. 12 (1714) 'Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen' (Weeping, wailing, grieving, fearing). The Nicene Creed, originally written in Greek and one of the fundamental creeds of Christianity, was drawn up by the Council of Nicaea, a meeting of bishops in AD 325, the first ecumenical (=worldwide) council consisting of church leaders who met to discuss teachings about Jesus. February 1st, 1733, marked the death of Friedrich August I (also known as August the Strong), who had reigned as Prince-Elector of Saxony since 1694 and additionally as King of Poland since 1697. In a society which regards Kings as divinely appointed by God, Bach would have seen no incongruity in using the same music to praise the King of Poland and the King of Heaven. PART ONE: Missa, consisting of Kyrie and Gloria. With incredible skill, Bach adapted this older music to new texts, often adding contrapuntal lines, extending passages and otherwise furthering the music. The words of the Nicene Creed were formulated by the bishops and were a statement of the most important beliefs of Christianity, being an Ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and major Protestant churches. His next position was at the small Court of Anhalt-Cöthen where he would hold the position of Capellmeister, the highest rank given to a musician during the baroque age. Leipzig, being Saxony's most important city after the capital Dresden, was first to receive the Royal Visit. Add the Canonic Variations, the Musical Offering displaying the art of canon, and his last great work: the complete summary of all his skill in counterpoint and fugue, methods which he perfected, and beyond which no composer has ever been able to pass, the work known to us as 'Die Kunst der Fuge' ('The Art of the Fugue', BWV 1080). The Credo bursts forth with two vibrant fugal choruses. Nearly one-third of the Mass is reworked from cantatas. Bach's magnificent Sanctus, with its exultant fugue, was written originally for Christmas Day, 1724. 11 (The Ascension Oratorio). The virtuosity continues, as this delicate movement suggests a double concerto, with violin and mezzo-soprano as soloists. And his “Passions” and “Mass in B Minor” stand apart from choral music in general. Thus the Et expecto is taken from Cantata 120, the Crucifixus is basd on a passacaglia from Cantata 12, the Gratias and Dona nobis pacem are taken from Cantata 29, the Qui tollis is from Cantata 46, the Patrem omnipotentum is from Cantata 171, the Osanna is based on Cantata 215, the introduction to the first Kyrie is taken from Cantata 198, the Benedictus is taken from an earlier aria that has not survived in its original form, the Agnus Dei is from Cantata 11, and the final Dona nobis pacem uses the same music as the Gratias. The Domine Deus is a duet for tenor and soprano, with accompaniment for flute and muted strings. Kyrie Eleison (Greek for "Lord have mercy") is a very old, even pre-Christian expression used constantly in all Christian liturgies. It was never intended to be performed as a whole within the liturgy, and its various movements date from different periods of Bach’s life. Laudamus te. This comfortable security of position combined with the fact that Bach had established, during his first six or seven years' tenure, a more than sufficient repertoire of cantatas (it has been suggested that he composed in total some 300), allowed him to widen his musical scope of activity. So the Dresden Court was officially Catholic. Though this was not immediately forthcoming, after a reminder in 1736 by Bach's influential friend Count von Keyserlingk, the title of Compositeur of the Royal Court Capelle was "conferred upon Johann Sebastian Bach on the latter's most humble entreaty and because of his ability". This, like the first piece in the Gloria, is virtuosic, with rapid motion in the fugue’s countersubject, intricate counterpoint, and considerable demands on the chorus. Bach also sought to leave a significant sacred choral work, and began to conceive the notion of what would become known as the Mass in B-Minor. It uses almost the same music as 'Ach bleibe doch, mein liebstes Leben' ('Oh, stay with me, my dearest life'), from Cantata No. Beethoven had plans to write another Mass after the Missa Solemnis, but it didn't come to pass. All of these early performances involved various new instrumentations that made the work sound as if it had been orchestrated by Beethoven. Furthermore, Bach took care to gain prior support from officials at the Dresden Court and leading players in the Dresden Court Capelle. The five-part chorus is accompanied by two independent violin lines (plus the ubiquitous continuo), so that we have a seven-voice contrapuntal texture. The middle section, which states Christian belief about Jesus, is the longest. The first part of the Gloria, a joyous outpouring, was probably reworked from a now lost instrumental movement. Though Saxony was fervently Lutheran Protestant, August I had converted to Catholicism in order to accept the Polish Crown, and his successor August II followed suit. The music is meditative and tranquil, but with an undercurrent of intensity provided by some beautiful chromaticism. Drawing on decades of composition, including what he considered to be the most thematically relevant of his great cantatas, Bach created a masterpiece designed to endure for the ages. Domine Deus. Thus Bach had, by 1723, experienced a wide variety of musical environments and duties. He never heard it in his lifetime. The words of the Nicene Creed were formulated by the bishops and were a statement of the most important beliefs of Christianity, being an Ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and major Protestant churches. The chorus Et incarnatus est depicts an intense awe, an emotion that is deepened into despair in the Crucifixus, reworked from a chorus in a youthful Weimar Cantata, No. The Quoniam, with its dark tones of horn obligato and well-rounded bassoon duet figurations, provides an impressive vehicle for the bass soloist, and leads straight into the gloriously jubilant Cum Sancto Spiritu, complete with agile choral fugue, marking the end of Bach's original Missa. Five-part choral writing is most in evidence, the… Like the Missa, the Symbolum Nicenum has its own cohesive structure. During the Church Service in the Nikolaikirche, Leipzig's main church, Capellmeister and Director Musices Johann Sebastian Bach conducted a performance of the Kyrie and Gloria especially composed for the Occasion. In these last years of his life, Bach's creative energy was conserved for the highest flights of musical expression. 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